HKTAM Glossary Highlights (香港電視觀眾收視調查的常見詞彙)

Click here to Download a PDF printout

English Chinese  Description
Analog Broadcast 模擬制式廣播 It involves the broadcasting of encoded analog audio and analog video signal. All TV broadcasting systems preceding digital television were analog television systems
Audio Matching 音頻匹配 Technique of signal identification in which the meter collects sample audio data from images displayed on the TV screen, which it matches against an array of known signals from a central reference source in order to establish the identity of the measured signals.
Average TV Audience 平均電視觀衆人數 The average number of members of a specified population (e.g. target group of individuals or households) viewing a TV channel over a given interval (e.g. programme, daypart).
Broadcasting 廣播 Over-the-air distribution of audio and/or video signals (programmes) to a large number of recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") within the technical reach of the signals. The main types of broadcast transmission include satellite, terrestrial and MMDS distribution.
Catch up TV Viewing 點播觀看 Online viewing of programs that are available on-demand for a specific period of time after the real-time broadcast. Catch up streams can be playback at any time only if the stream is available online.
Channel Share 頻道觀衆佔有率 Estimated audience share of a TV channel.
Commercial Ratings 廣告收視點 Audiences for advertising commercial spots. Different TAM systems employ different algorithms for computing commercial ratings/GRPs for minute by minute or second by second GRP measures. 
Daypart 時段 Division of the broadcast day constituting a single timeband (e.g. early morning: 06.00-09.00; peak or prime time: 19.00-23.00, etc.). Most TAM systems divide the day into about eight dayparts (e.g. Early morning; Mid to late morning; Lunchtime; Early to mid afternoon; Late afternoon; Peak/Prime time, Late evening; Night). 
Demographic Variable 人口統計因素 Population variable for classifying individuals or households in terms of personal or family characteristics. Examples include Region; Type of settlement; Household size; Age; Sex; Social grade/Socio-economic level; Work status; Occupation; Education; Presence of children; Life stage.
DTT (Digital Terrestrial TV) 數碼地面電視廣播 Digital TV broadcasted terrestrially over the air for reception by television (DTT) aerial antennae.
Establishment Survey 基準調查 Large-scale survey for collecting establishment, demographic and other household data. The ES provides the basis for deriving population profile estimates and determining target profiles for selected panel control variables (unless taken from other external sources). The ES samples are also generally used as a source of addresses for panel recruitment.
Extended Screen (PC) 伸延屏幕(電腦) It is defined as any PC (desktops, notebooks, netbooks, Mac) other than a traditional TV set that allows the viewing of TV content.
FTA (Free-To-Air) 免費(接收)頻道 Broadcast television channels that are free at the point of consumption. This category includes publicly funded channels (e.g. financed by the licence fee) and channels that are financed by advertising only or by a mixture of public funding and advertising revenues. It excludes any form of subscription or pay-per-view TV.
Gold Standard 收視研究準則 Industry declared correct audience values, most often used in connection with viewer ratings. The object of laying down "gold standards" is to prevent disputes between buyers and sellers of commercial airtime over the correct audience figures that have arisen on account of them using different software yielding different estimates of viewing.
HDTV (High Definition Television) 高清電視 Television broadcasting systems with notably higher resolution than conventional standard definition television (SDTV) systems. In order to achieve higher resolution HD broadcasts, a much greater bandwidth capacity is required, which has been facilitated by the development of digital compression technologies.
iDTV 內置數碼解碼器的電視 TV sets with in-built converters that can receive and display digital TV channels transmitted in the clear without the need for set-top boxes.
In-tab Sample 有效樣本 The final sample yielding audience measurement data on a given day after polling and validation: It is equal to the in production sample less households that were not successfully polled and households that were successfully polled, but rejected during validation for technical or behavioural reasons.
Live Audience 實時收看觀衆 The audience of a commercial, daypart or programme at the time of its actual transmission.
Live Viewing 實時收看 Viewing of live broadcasts at the actual time of transmission, therefore not including any playback or time shifted viewing.
Panel 固定樣本 Representative survey sample from which data is collected over time. Panels may be short term and employ discrete one-off samples (e.g. some diary surveys) or continuous and long term with samples that change over time according to the number of homes that leave the panel and are replaced by new homes.
Panel Balance 觀眾樣本調整 Conformity of actual panel allocation to the ideal panel allocation for the selected panel control variables.
Panel Maintenance 觀眾樣本管理 Panel staff functions of preserving panel balance over time and likewise accuracy of panel classifications and quality of panel response through the exercise of regular and periodic quality control procedures.
Pay TV 收費電視 General term for all subscription TV and on-demand TV services.
Peoplemeter 收視記錄儀 Generic name for the electronic measurement system which monitors the channel that a TV set is tuned to and the individuals present in the room while the TV set is switched on. 
Peoplemeter measurement 收視記錄儀調查方法 General methodology for collecting TAM data by means of a household panel sample equipped with a dual metering system that registers (a) TV set status (i.e. which channel is being tuned to) and (b) viewer presence. Peoplemeter TAM research is currently restricted to measuring in-home audiences with meters attached to each TV set.
Polling 數據採集 Procedure for collecting data from meter panel homes, usually by means of a telephone call from the central processing base of the data supplier, which downloads in the early hours of the morning meter data from the previous broadcast day(s) via a modem connection with the central meter data storage unit in the home. 
Primetime 黃金時段 Evening daypart associated with largest audiences, generally between 19.00 and 23.00, though precise times may vary slightly by country.
Programme Logs 節目時間記錄 Record of all programmes transmitted by TV channels. The information may be provided by the TV channel itself or by an independent source and is matched against processed individual viewing statements so as to permit viewing figures for specific programmes. The logs may contain additional information, such as programme genre codes, which can be used to estimate and report audiences for different kinds of programming.
Reach 到達率 The cumulative percentage of a population that has been counted as viewers at least once during a specified interval. 
Response Rate 成功受訪率 Index of survey response in surveys employing interview or self-completion questionnaires. The RR is typically defined as the total number of successfully completed interviews expressed as a percentage of the total number of addresses/individuals approached during a survey: the main reasons for non-response being absences and refusals. Precise operational definitions are highly variable, though.
Sample 樣本 One or more elements (individuals or households) selected from a universe to represent that universe.
Sampling Error 樣本誤差 Statistical measure of the possible deviation of a sample estimate from the true population value, assuming the sample to be representative of the population from which it has been drawn. The sample error is normally expressed as a margin of difference either side of the reported value within specified confidence limits (i.e. "there is an x% probability that the true population value lies within y units either side of the sample estimate"). Sample error is wholly distinct and not to be confused with sample bias, for which no parametric statistical assumptions can be made.
Satellite TV 衛星電視 General term for all TV channels and other services that are transmitted via satellite and can be accessed via DTH or SMATV reception.
Simulcasting 同步廣播 Simultaneous broadcasting of a TV channel or programme on two or more different transmission systems (e.g. TV channels broadcast simultaneously in analogue and digital formats). Also, the simultaneous broadcast of the same programme on two or more different channels. 
STB (Set-Top Box) 機頂盒 Device that receives, processes, converts and displays incoming TV signals, for display on TV sets. The set-top box may be designed to receive signals in analogue or digital form and from cable, satellite and terrestrial sources.
Survey Universe 調查總人口 The total population that is being measured or reported, as defined by a selection of demographic, geographic, housing, equipment and other criteria (e.g. nationality/language/ethnic origin). Within the total universe, TAM services may further designate one or more narrower universes (e.g. cable/satellite, region, etc.) that are controlled for and weighted separately.
Target Audience 目標觀眾 Core TV audience which an advertiser is aiming to reach; typically specified in terms of sex, age, socio-economic grade and housewife/main shopper categories. In many countries, airtime prices are negotiated with respect to specified target audiences.
Target Audience Rating Point (TARP) 目標觀眾收視點 Unit GRP with reference to a specified target audience.
Terrestrial TV 地面電視 TV channels broadcast terrestrially in analogue or digital and which can be received off-air.
TV Audience Measurement (TAM) 電視觀眾收視調查 Widely used acronym for Television Audience Measurement.
TV Audience Share 電視觀眾佔有率 Percentage of total TV viewing across a specified time interval of a given channel, programme or other use of TV set.
TV Broadcaster 電視廣播機構 Company/organisation broadcasting one or more TV channels.
TV Rating  電視收視點 The average percentage of a given population group watching a TV channel/programme across a set time interval. The concept of rating is generally restricted to TV, but may also be used for other media. One rating point equals 1 percentage.
Weight Factor 權重 Multiplication factor for converting the size of a sample to the population estimate for the survey universe.