involves the broadcasting of encoded analog audio and analog video signal.
All TV broadcasting systems preceding digital television were analog
of signal identification in which the meter collects sample audio data from
images displayed on the TV screen, which it matches against an array of known
signals from a central reference source in order to establish the identity of
the measured signals.
|Average TV Audience
number of members of a specified population (e.g. target group of individuals
or households) viewing a TV channel over a given interval (e.g. programme,
distribution of audio and/or video signals (programmes) to a large number of
recipients ("listeners" or "viewers") within the
technical reach of the signals. The main types of broadcast transmission
include satellite, terrestrial and MMDS distribution.
|Catch up TV Viewing
viewing of programs that are available on-demand for a specific period of
time after the real-time broadcast. Catch up streams can be playback at any
time only if the stream is available online.
audience share of a TV channel.
for advertising commercial spots. Different TAM systems employ different
algorithms for computing commercial ratings/GRPs for minute by minute or
second by second GRP measures.
of the broadcast day constituting a single timeband (e.g. early morning:
06.00-09.00; peak or prime time: 19.00-23.00, etc.). Most TAM systems divide
the day into about eight dayparts (e.g. Early morning; Mid to late morning;
Lunchtime; Early to mid afternoon; Late afternoon; Peak/Prime time, Late
variable for classifying individuals or households in terms of personal or
family characteristics. Examples include Region; Type of settlement;
Household size; Age; Sex; Social grade/Socio-economic level; Work status;
Occupation; Education; Presence of children; Life stage.
|DTT (Digital Terrestrial TV)
TV broadcasted terrestrially over the air for reception by television (DTT)
survey for collecting establishment, demographic and other household data.
The ES provides the basis for deriving population profile estimates and
determining target profiles for selected panel control variables (unless
taken from other external sources). The ES samples are also generally used as
a source of addresses for panel recruitment.
|Extended Screen (PC)
||It is defined as
any PC (desktops, notebooks, netbooks, Mac) other than a traditional TV set
that allows the viewing of TV content.
television channels that are free at the point of consumption. This category
includes publicly funded channels (e.g. financed by the licence fee) and
channels that are financed by advertising only or by a mixture of public
funding and advertising revenues. It excludes any form of subscription or
declared correct audience values, most often used in connection with viewer
ratings. The object of laying down "gold standards" is to prevent
disputes between buyers and sellers of commercial airtime over the correct
audience figures that have arisen on account of them using different software
yielding different estimates of viewing.
|HDTV (High definition television)
broadcasting systems with notably higher resolution than conventional
standard definition television (SDTV) systems. In order to achieve higher
resolution HD broadcasts, a much greater bandwidth capacity is required,
which has been facilitated by the development of digital compression
sets with in-built converters that can receive and display digital TV
channels transmitted in the clear without the need for set-top boxes.
final sample yielding audience measurement data on a given day after polling
and validation: It is equal to the in production sample less households that
were not successfully polled and households that were successfully polled,
but rejected during validation for technical or behavioural reasons.
audience of a commercial, daypart or programme at the time of its actual
of live broadcasts at the actual time of transmission, therefore not
including any playback or time shifted viewing.
survey sample from which data is collected over time. Panels may be short
term and employ discrete one-off samples (e.g. some diary surveys) or
continuous and long term with samples that change over time according to the
number of homes that leave the panel and are replaced by new homes.
of actual panel allocation to the ideal panel allocation for the selected
panel control variables.
staff functions of preserving panel balance over time and likewise accuracy
of panel classifications and quality of panel response through the exercise
of regular and periodic quality control procedures.
term for all subscription TV and on-demand TV services.
name for the electronic measurement system which monitors the channel that a
TV set is tuned to and the individuals present in the room while the TV set
is switched on.
methodology for collecting TAM data by means of a household panel sample
equipped with a dual metering system that registers (a) TV set status (i.e.
which channel is being tuned to) and (b) viewer presence. Peoplemeter TAM
research is currently restricted to measuring in-home audiences with meters
attached to each TV set.
for collecting data from meter panel homes, usually by means of a telephone
call from the central processing base of the data supplier, which downloads
in the early hours of the morning meter data from the previous broadcast
day(s) via a modem connection with the central meter data storage unit in the
daypart associated with largest audiences, generally between 19.00 and 23.00,
though precise times may vary slightly by country.
of all programmes transmitted by TV channels. The information may be provided
by the TV channel itself or by an independent source and is matched against
processed individual viewing statements so as to permit viewing figures for
specific programmes. The logs may contain additional information, such as
programme genre codes, which can be used to estimate and report audiences for
different kinds of programming.
cumulative percentage of a population that has been counted as viewers at
least once during a specified interval.
of survey response in surveys employing interview or self-completion
questionnaires. The RR is typically defined as the total number of
successfully completed interviews expressed as a percentage of the total
number of addresses/individuals approached during a survey: the main reasons
for non-response being absences and refusals. Precise operational definitions
are highly variable, though.
or more elements (individuals or households) selected from a universe to
represent that universe.
measure of the possible deviation of a sample estimate from the true
population value, assuming the sample to be representative of the population
from which it has been drawn. The sample error is normally expressed as a
margin of difference either side of the reported value within specified
confidence limits (i.e. "there is an x% probability that the true
population value lies within y units either side of the sample
estimate"). Sample error is wholly distinct and not to be confused with
sample bias, for which no parametric statistical assumptions can be made.
term for all TV channels and other services that are transmitted via
satellite and can be accessed via DTH or SMATV reception.
broadcasting of a TV channel or programme on two or more different
transmission systems (e.g. TV channels broadcast simultaneously in analogue
and digital formats). Also, the simultaneous broadcast of the same programme
on two or more different channels.
|STB (Set-Top Box)
that receives, processes, converts and displays incoming TV signals, for
display on TV sets. The set-top box may be designed to receive signals in
analogue or digital form and from cable, satellite and terrestrial sources.
total population that is being measured or reported, as defined by a
selection of demographic, geographic, housing, equipment and other criteria
(e.g. nationality/language/ethnic origin). Within the total universe, TAM
services may further designate one or more narrower universes (e.g.
cable/satellite, region, etc.) that are controlled for and weighted
TV audience which an advertiser is aiming to reach; typically specified in
terms of sex, age, socio-economic grade and housewife/main shopper
categories. In many countries, airtime prices are negotiated with respect to
specified target audiences.
|Target Audience Rating Point (TARP)
GRP with reference to a specified target audience.
channels broadcast terrestrially in analogue or digital and which can be
|TV Audience Measurement (TAM)
used acronym for Television Audience Measurement.
|TV Audience Share
of total TV viewing across a specified time interval of a given channel,
programme or other use of TV set.
broadcasting one or more TV channels.
average percentage of a given population group watching a TV
channel/programme across a set time interval. The concept of rating is
generally restricted to TV, but may also be used for other media. One rating
point equals 1 percentage.
factor for converting the size of a sample to the population estimate for the